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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2021
Volume 53 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 97-125

Online since Tuesday, October 12, 2021

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State allied and healthcare professions council and information of professional significance p. 97
Anil Kumar Srivastava
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Lifestyle behaviors and their influence on work-related musculoskeletal discomfort: A web-based survey during coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic p. 99
Bharati Jajoo, Shweta Bhatbolan, Sudhir Bhatbolan
Background: Healthy lifestyle choices have a great impact on individuals' health. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created an unprecedented work from home (WFH) situation. This recent trend has led to computer users in WFH having limited access to health-care options, ergonomic workstations and social participation like a visit to a gym or walking in the park, or any other meaningful engagements which people adopt to improve their health and well-being. Objectives: This study aimed to identify the health and lifestyle behaviors and work-related discomfort reported by employees in WFH situations due to COVID-19 lockdown through a self-reported survey and to study if there is an association between reported discomfort and lifestyle behaviors. Study Design: This was a cross-sectional survey. Methods: A web-based, E-mail, cross-sectional survey was designed having three sections: demographic characteristics; work-related discomfort and its rating on the Visual Analog Scale (VAS); and scoring on the Simple Lifestyle Indicator Questionnaire (SLIQ). Completed questionnaires and the responses from employees in WFH were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Demographic data showed that the majority of the respondents were male (n = 190 [78%]). One hundred and ninety-five (80%) respondents reported symptoms of musculoskeletal discomfort. The SLIQ score showed 1 (1%) of the studied population in the healthy category, 70 (29%) in the intermediate healthy category, and 173 (70%) in the unhealthy category. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated for the individual scores in each category with the VAS score. Exercise and VAS score showed a significant negative correlation (ρ = −0.146; P = 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.261 [LL], −0.005 [UL]) while the VAS score with smoking (ρ = 0.362; P = 0.000; 95% CI: 0.227 LL, 0.466 UL) and stress level (ρ = −0.140; P = 0.029; 95% CI: −0.286 LL, −0.003 UL) showed a significant positive correlation. Conclusion: WFH has led to an overall reduction of participation in healthy lifestyle behaviors, with a substantial percentage of people classified in the unhealthy category. Survey also elicits a significant association where higher levels of exercise in people correlated with a lower reported work-related musculoskeletal discomfort. Similarly, smoking and higher stress levels correlated positively with reported musculoskeletal discomfort symptoms. Thus, awareness measures to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors and stress management should be incorporated among computer users working from home settings.
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Effect of backward walking and side walking training on walking speed and endurance in patients with stroke: An experimental randomized controlled study p. 104
Damayanti Sethy, Ameed Equebal, Eva S Kujur, Eshani Mallick
Background: There is a direct relationship exists between hemiplegic walking speed and functional limitations, both in household and community ambulation. Walking after stroke is characterized by slow gait speed, poor endurance, and change in the quality and adaptability of walking patterns. Side stability, symmetrical weight-bearing, and backward motor control ability are required to improve walking function. Objective: To investigate whether a combination of backward and side walking training is effective in improving walking speed and walking endurance in patients with poststroke hemiparesis. Study Design: An experimental randomized controlled study design. Methods: A total of 56 patients with poststroke hemiparesis fulfilling inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Patients in the experimental group received 30 min of backward and side walking training of 15 min each. The patients in the control group received conventional occupational therapy for 30 min. Walking speed was assessed by walking endurance was evaluated by 10-m walk test (MWT) (and walking endurance was evaluated by 6MWT. Follow-up assessment was performed after 6 weeks of intervention. Results: In the within-group comparisons, both experimental and control groups showed significant differences postintervention (P < 0.05). In the between-group comparison, patients in the experimental group showed more improvement than the control group for walking speed (P = 0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.86 to 9.73) and walking endurance (P = 0.004, 95% CI: 8.32 to 9.47) after 6-weeks of intervention. Conclusions: This study concluded that combined backward and side walking training has a better effect on walking speed and endurance than conventional therapy.
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Influence of simulated functional task to improve executive function, functional balance and activities of daily living in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment: A one-arm interventional study p. 109
K Sanjeevkumar, S Sakthi Srija
Background: Elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have decline in executive functions, functional balance, and impact on the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL). The simulated functional task (FcTSim) program may provide standard benefits on the cognitive function of elderly patients with MCI. Objective: This study aimed to find the effectiveness of FcTSim to improve executive functions, functional balance, and ADL in elderly patients with MCI. Study Design: A one-arm interventional study. Method: An interventional study was conducted on elderly patients with MCI and balance impairment. They were selected for the study on the basis of the Mini-Mental Status Examination score 18–23, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score of <45 (indicate the greatest risk of falling), and age group between 65–85 years. FcTSim program was given for 4 weeks, a total of 12 sessions (3 sessions per week). Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), BBS, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) scales were used as the outcome measures. Results: The mean posttest scores of ACE-R was 11.53 ± 3.62; P < 0.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.52 to 13.54, BBS 8.80 ± 2.36; P < 0.00; 95% CI: 7.49 to 10.11, it shows significant difference and COPM performance 1.00 ± 0.84; P < 0.00; 95% CI: 0.53 to 1.46 satisfaction 1.53 ± 0.91; P < 0.00; 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.04. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that after 4 weeks encompassing 12 sessions of FcTSim, the elderly patients with MCI showed improvement in their executive functions, functional balance, and ADL such as eating, bathing, dressing, and grooming.
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Development of occupational therapy activities of daily living index to assess basic activities of daily living in an Indian context: A prospective quantitative study p. 116
Parag R Adsule, Akshata Mahale, Sujata Jalmi
Background: Activities of daily living (ADL) deficit is a common and significant problem after any condition. Many scales are more focused on assessing the patients' independence or dependence but are less understood on the different parameters such as importance and values of activity, satisfaction, ability to cope up, completion, and time taken for the activity. These parameters are not well defined in many ADL assessments. Objectives: The purpose of this index was to evaluate ADL not only based on independence but also to understand the patients' values, adequacy, safety, standard, and finally, acceptability. Study Design: A prospective quantitative study was conducted. Methods: We conducted prospective, quantitative study and developed a new scale. Items were generated from a review of literature, semi-structured interviews of adult as well as geriatric patients and discussions with experts were carried out. The new instrument was piloted among 290 patients with neurological and orthopedic conditions. Content validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Results: The new scale has good internal consistency: Cronbach's alpha = 0.984 and KR20 value = 0.97. Test–retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.87) was found to be good. Conclusion: Our research analysis indicates that Occupational Therapy (OT) ADL index is reliable for rating the Basic ADL skills for functional deficits in neurological and orthopedic conditions in adults. The OT ADL index may facilitate an objective assessment in the OT domains of basic ADL.
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Erratum: Occupational therapy for reducing disabilities in persons with disabilities in India: A systematic review p. 121

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News and Information p. 122

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